When I learned that Francis Newton Souza died last week, (he would have
been 78 on April 12, 2002) my mind traveled back to the Taj Mahal Hotel
in Bombay in February of 1963 when Souza held a successful exhibition
of his paintings.
I had interviewed him there for a feature article for The Navhind Times,
the new English dail started in Panjim that very month. I grew curious
to read what I had written about him, and wondered if I might be able
to retrieve that article from the paper.
I sent a request to my good friend Dr. Jose Colaco of Nassau, who relayed
the message to Gaspar Almeida of Kuwait, who in turn contacted Cecil
Pinto of Panjim. And through this network via email, my curiosity has
been satisfied within a week. I express my deepest appreciation to all
principals involved, Ms. Lynn Pereira who copied the article by hand
in the Central Library and then typed it.
I was 27 years old when I wrote that piece. Having reread it today,
I feel there are two words in that 1000-word article that need clarification
The first is the word 'genius' in the headline. In my studies
in literary criticism, I'd discovered that the word genius carried a
rare connotation. It's a word that I might use to characterize James
Joyce and his novel Ulysses or Marcel Proust and his autobiographical
novel In Search of Lost Time. This is because of the formidable breadth
and depth of Proust's perception and of Joyce's narrative style.
I couldn't cope with the staggering genius of either of the twentieth
century's celebrated novelists.
Something similar happened to me when I viewed Souza's paintings. Now
I don' t pretend to understand his art at all. My knowledge of art was
gleaned from readings in the university library-Renaissance painters,
the Dutch Masters, French impressionists, English landscapes, and modern
abstract and surrealistic art, as practised by Picasso and Dali.
So I decided I would try to understand the artist and thereby gain some
insight into his art. I found Souza's work extremely difficult to like;
it seemed to dwell beyond the pale of surrealism.
Souza, going on 39, was clad in dark trousers and a gray tweed jacket,
without a tie. I watched him from a distance inside the Taj gallery,
as he spoke to art aficionados and curious visitors. There was one huge
canvas resembling a crucified Christ except that this figure had a third
eye at the top of its forehead. The color of blood was dominant in all
his paintings. With cautious hesitation, I went over to ask the man
at the desk about the price of that oil painting. "Oh that,"
he said, "It's thirty thousand
rupees." Since I didn't know any better, I thought Souza must indeed
be a genius.
The second word that needs clarification is amiable.
From my readings I'd gathered that Souza was a hothead and an egotist.
Later, after the gallery closed, Souza invited me to his room-a spacious
drawing room worthy of the Taj Hotel. I became nervous and focused my
questions on his Goan heritage.
He kept his voice soft and friendly, but his dark eyes were sharp and
probing. "Your roots are where you plant them," he told me.
And I was immediately convinced. During the interview, he treated me
with a graciousness that celebrities bestow upon the young and the untalented.
My article was published in the Sunday edition of Navhind Times, April
28, 1963. Two months later, I resigned from my job at the Bombay Port
Trust and came to Goa. Lambert Mascarenhas, co-editor, hired me as a
I sent a copy of the article to Souza at his London address. Souza replied,
complimenting me. He ended his letter with this sentence in his carefully
formed handwriting, "I am not a megalomaniac by nature, but do
you think that an art gallery could be opened in Panjim displaying my
bearing my name?"
I showed the letter to Lambert. He grinned and laughed, and I chuckled
Souza's irony did not escape me.
This has been a long introduction, but I felt I wanted to bring some
sort of closure to the life of this Goan artist who dared to dream his
own way and make a good living at it.
Toronto, April 6, 2002
Francis Newton Souza :
Genius in the field of modern art
Bombay last month went into raptures over a Goan artist. He is 39 years
old, Saligao-born, bearded Francis Newton Souza, whom art critics here
and abroad have acclaimed a genius in the field of modern art. But there
is nothing abstract or three-dimensional in the work of Souza, who is
essentially original and individualistic, very much as he is in real
Souza came to Bombay with a high reputation as an artist. His last visit
to India was in the year of grace (1960), after eleven years of trial
and hard work in London. The exhibition of his paintings for the first
time in Bombay at the Taj Art Gallery last month was very well received.
It immediately placed Souza above all contemporary Indian artists, both
in the matter of form and medium.
Indian art critics, who would not touch his paintings with a barge pole
a couple of years ago, and who even passed him for a crank or charlatan,
now hastily revised their opinions, showering on him paeans of praise.
Souza's depiction of the human form is not pleasing to the eye. Dark
conceits and stark imagery are his stock-in-trade. He appears to distort
the face deliberately in order to achieve grandeur through ugliness.
Drawing a contrast between Renaissance painters and his own method,
he says "Renaissance painters painted men and women making them
look like angels. I paint for angels, to show them what men and women
really look like."
His nudes convey the impression of disillusion and despair, the sad
satiety that seems usually to accompany violent delights and excitements.
The viewer is at once awe-struck and forewarned. "I often try to
paint a bad picture, and I bloody well succeed," says Souza and
goes on to describe: "I started using more than two eyes, numerous
eyes and fingers on my paintings and drawings of human figure when I
realized what it meant to have the superfluous and so not need the necessary.
Why should I be sparse and parsimonious when not only this world, but
worlds in space are open to me? I have everything to use at my disposal.
I leave discretion, understatement, discrimination to the finicky and
the lunatic fringe. In any case, I have never counted the number of
teeth I've drawn in grinning mouths. So what of a few extra eyes, fingers,
Souza is one of the few amiable men I have been privileged to meet.
Obviously irritated by the suggestion made at a function that he should
recognize his roots and fall back upon them, Souza minced no words when
he told me that there was no such thing as having roots in one country.
"Roots need water from clouds forming over distant seas, and from
rivers having sources in different lands," he said and added that
one's roots lay where one's home was.
"I have a house and property in London, but not a square inch of
land in Assolna," he stressed. With the space all but conquered
a time might come when we would have to take our roots in space, he
argued, and deplored the tendency among Indians to think in terms of
province, caste and languages.
Souza is pleased with his work and its reward. He said he was one of
the highest paid artists in London today, perhaps the highest. People
considered it a `sound investment' to buy his paintings. Culled from
his notebook: "I make more money from my paintings than the Prime
Minister makes from his politics."
Souza learned the elements of painting and drawing in Sir J.J. School
of Art, Bombay. In September 1945, before the completion of his course,
he was expelled from the school. Far from discouraged (he said he felt
'free') he kept on painting and the very first painting he did after
his expulsion was bought by Dr. Herman Goetz, an authority on painting,
for the Baroda Museum.
The following year he entered pictures for the Bombay Art Society's
annual exhibition, only to find them rejected. In 1947, however, the
same Bombay Art Society not only accepted his painting, but awarded
him a prize as well. In the same year, he founded the Progressive Artists'
Group, of which the first members were Ara, Bakre, Gade, Husain and
Arriving in London in July 1949 to make his mark as a painter, Souza,
like most artists, found the going tough for a while. Here he met the
poet Stephen Spender who, Souza writes in his book Words and Lines,
helped him find his bearings, and also bought his paintings, Incidentally,
Spender has helped and encouraged many budding Indian writers and artists.
One such is Dom Moraes who is now settled in London.
Since 1953, he has had exhibition of his paintings all over the continent,
the U.S.A and Brazil. In 1957 he won a prize at the John Moores Liverpool
Exhibition. Art critic David Sylvester wrote in the New Statesman in
1957: "The importance of Souza, the young Goan painter, is that
he has crossed the Indian bazaar painting with the Picasso style to
produce a manner that is at once individual and consistent."
Edwin Mullins, in his book F.N. Souza has this to say about him. "Souza's
treatment of the figurative image is richly varied. Besides the violence,
the eroticism and the satire, there is a religious quality about his
work, which is medieval in its simplicity and in its unsophisticated
sense of wonder. Some of the most moving of Souza's paintings are those
which convey a spirit of awe in the presence of a divine power--a God,
who is not a God of gentleness and love, but rather of suffering, vengeance
and terrible grandeur, which even Rouault and Sutherland have not equaled
in this century".
His immediate plans are to hold two exhibitions--one in London and the
other in Bombay, which will be eight months hence.
© 2002 Ben Antao